Module BatText

module BatText: sig .. end

Heavyweight strings ("ropes")

This module implements ropes as described in Boehm, H., Atkinson, R., and Plass, M. 1995. Ropes: an alternative to strings. Softw. Pract. Exper. 25, 12 (Dec. 1995), 1315-1330.

Ropes are an alternative to strings which support efficient operations:

Functional nature and persistence

All operations are non-destructive: the original rope is never modified. When a new rope is returned as the result of an operation, it will share as much data as possible with its "parent". For instance, if a rope of length n undergoes m operations (assume n >> m) like set, append or prepend, the modified rope will only require O(m) space in addition to that taken by the original one.

However, Rope is an amortized data structure, and its use in a persistent setting can easily degrade its amortized time bounds. It is thus mainly intended to be used ephemerally. In some cases, it is possible to use Rope persistently with the same amortized bounds by explicitly rebalancing ropes to be reused using balance. Special care must be taken to avoid calling balance too frequently; in the limit, calling balance after each modification would defeat the purpose of amortization.

Limitations

The length of ropes is limited to approximately 700 Mb on 32-bit architectures, 220 Gb on 64 bit architectures.


type t 

The type of the rope.

exception Out_of_bounds

Raised when an operation violates the bounds of the rope.

val max_length : int

Maximum length of the rope (number of UTF-8 characters).

Creation and conversions
val empty : t

The empty rope.

val of_latin1 : string -> t

Constructs a unicode rope from a latin-1 string.

val of_string : string -> t

of_string s returns a rope corresponding to the UTF-8 encoded string s.

val to_string : t -> string

to_string t returns a UTF-8 encoded string representing t

val of_uchar : BatUChar.t -> t

of_uchar c returns a rope containing exactly character c.

val of_char : char -> t

of_char c returns a rope containing exactly Latin-1 character c.

val make : int -> BatUChar.t -> t

make i c returns a rope of length i consisting of c chars; it is similar to String.make

val join : t -> t list -> t

Same as BatText.concat

val explode : t -> BatUChar.t list

explode s returns the list of characters in the rope s.

val implode : BatUChar.t list -> t

implode cs returns a rope resulting from concatenating the characters in the list cs.

Properties
val is_empty : t -> bool

Returns whether the rope is empty or not.

val length : t -> int

Returns the length of the rope (O(1)). This is number of UTF-8 characters.

val height : t -> int

Returns the height (depth) of the rope.

val balance : t -> t

balance r returns a balanced copy of the r rope. Note that ropes are automatically rebalanced when their height exceeds a given threshold, but balance allows to invoke that operation explicity.

Operations
val append : t -> t -> t

append r u concatenates the r and u ropes. In general, it operates in O(log(min n1 n2)) amortized time. Small ropes are treated specially and can be appended/prepended in amortized O(1) time.

val (^^^) : t -> t -> t

As BatText.append

val append_char : BatUChar.t -> t -> t

append_char c r returns a new rope with the c character at the end in amortized O(1) time.

val prepend_char : BatUChar.t -> t -> t

prepend_char c r returns a new rope with the c character at the beginning in amortized O(1) time.

val get : t -> int -> BatUChar.t

get r n returns the (n+1)th character from the rope r; i.e. get r 0 returns the first character. Operates in worst-case O(log size) time.

val set : t -> int -> BatUChar.t -> t

set r n c returns a copy of rope r where the (n+1)th character has been set to c. See also BatText.get. Operates in worst-case O(log size) time.

val sub : t -> int -> int -> t

sub r m n returns a sub-rope of r containing all characters whose indexes range from m to m + n - 1 (included). Operates in worst-case O(log size) time.

val insert : int -> t -> t -> t

insert n r u returns a copy of the u rope where r has been inserted between the characters with index n and n + 1 in the original rope. The length of the new rope is length u + length r. Operates in amortized O(log(size r) + log(size u)) time.

val remove : int -> int -> t -> t

remove m n r returns the rope resulting from deleting the characters with indexes ranging from m to m + n - 1 (included) from the original rope r. The length of the new rope is length r - n. Operates in amortized O(log(size r)) time.

val concat : t -> t list -> t

concat sep sl concatenates the list of ropes sl, inserting the separator rope sep between each.

Iteration
val iter : (BatUChar.t -> unit) -> t -> unit

iter f r applies f to all the characters in the r rope, in order.

val iteri : ?base:int -> (int -> BatUChar.t -> unit) -> t -> unit

Operates like iter, but also passes the index of the character to the given function.

val range_iter : (BatUChar.t -> unit) -> int -> int -> t -> unit

range_iter f m n r applies f to all the characters whose indices k satisfy m <= k < m + n. It is thus equivalent to iter f (sub m n r), but does not create an intermediary rope. range_iter operates in worst-case O(n + log m) time, which improves on the O(n log m) bound from an explicit loop using get.

val range_iteri : (int -> BatUChar.t -> unit) -> ?base:int -> int -> int -> t -> unit

As range_iter, but passes base + index of the character in the subrope defined by next to arguments.

val fold : ('a -> BatUChar.t -> 'a) -> 'a -> t -> 'a

Rope.fold f a r computes  f (... (f (f a r0) r1)...) rN-1  where rn = Rope.get n r  and N = length r.

val init : int -> (int -> BatUChar.t) -> t

init l f returns the rope of length l with the chars f 0 , f 1 , f 2 ... f (l-1).

val map : (BatUChar.t -> BatUChar.t) -> t -> t

map f s returns a rope where all characters c in s have been replaced by f c. *

val filter_map : (BatUChar.t -> BatUChar.t option) -> t -> t

filter_map f l calls (f a0) (f a1).... (f an) where a0..an are the characters of l. It returns the list of elements bi such as f ai = Some bi (when f returns None, the corresponding element of l is discarded).

val filter : (BatUChar.t -> bool) -> t -> t

filter f s returns a copy of rope s in which only characters c such that f c = true remain.

val enum : t -> BatUChar.t BatEnum.t

enumerate the rope's characters

val backwards : t -> BatUChar.t BatEnum.t

enumerates the rope's characters, in reverse order

val of_enum : BatUChar.t BatEnum.t -> t

converts the enumeration into a rope

Finding
val index : t -> BatUChar.t -> int

index s c returns the position of the leftmost occurrence of character c in rope s.

val index_from : t -> int -> BatUChar.t -> int

index_from r i c returns the character number of the first occurrence of character c in rope r after position i. index s c is equivalent to index_from s 0 c.

val rindex : t -> BatUChar.t -> int

Rope.rindex s c returns the position of the rightmost occurrence of character c in rope s.

val rindex_from : t -> int -> BatUChar.t -> int

Same as BatText.rindex, but start searching at the character position given as second argument. rindex s c is equivalent to rindex_from s (length s - 1) c.

val contains : t -> BatUChar.t -> bool

contains s c tests if character c appears in the rope s.

val contains_from : t -> int -> BatUChar.t -> bool

contains_from s start c tests if character c appears in the subrope of s starting from start to the end of s.

val rcontains_from : t -> int -> BatUChar.t -> bool

rcontains_from s stop c tests if character c appears in the subrope of s starting from the beginning of s to index stop (included).

val find : t -> t -> int

find s x returns the starting index of the first occurrence of rope x within rope s.

Note This implementation is optimized for short ropes.

val find_from : t -> int -> t -> int

find_from s ofs x behaves as find s x but starts searching at offset ofs. find s x is equivalent to find_from s 0 x.

val rfind : t -> t -> int

rfind s x returns the starting index of the last occurrence of rope x within rope s.

Note This implementation is optimized for short ropes.

val rfind_from : t -> int -> t -> int

rfind_from s ofs x behaves as rfind s x but starts searching at offset ofs. rfind s x is equivalent to rfind_from s (length s - 1) x.

val starts_with : t -> t -> bool

starts_with s x returns true if s is starting with x, false otherwise.

val ends_with : t -> t -> bool

ends_with s x returns true if the rope s is ending with x, false otherwise.

val exists : t -> t -> bool

exists str sub returns true if sub is a subrope of str or false otherwise.

val left : t -> int -> t

left r len returns the rope containing the len first characters of r

val right : t -> int -> t

left r len returns the rope containing the len last characters of r

val head : t -> int -> t

as BatText.left

val tail : t -> int -> t

tail r pos returns the rope containing all but the pos first characters of r

val strip : ?chars:BatUChar.t list -> t -> t

Returns the rope without the chars if they are at the beginning or at the end of the rope. By default chars are " \t\r\n".

val lchop : t -> t

Returns the same rope but without the first character. does nothing if the rope is empty.

val rchop : t -> t

Returns the same rope but without the last character. does nothing if the rope is empty.

val slice : ?first:int -> ?last:int -> t -> t

slice ?first ?last s returns a "slice" of the rope which corresponds to the characters s.[first], s.[first+1], ..., s[last-1]. Note that the character at index last is not included! If first is omitted it defaults to the start of the rope, i.e. index 0, and if last is omitted is defaults to point just past the end of s, i.e. length s. Thus, slice s is equivalent to copy s.

Negative indexes are interpreted as counting from the end of the rope. For example, slice ~last:-2 s will return the rope s, but without the last two characters.

This function never raises any exceptions. If the indexes are out of bounds they are automatically clipped.

val splice : t -> int -> int -> t -> t

splice s off len rep returns the rope in which the section of s indicated by off and len has been cut and replaced by rep.

Negative indices are interpreted as counting from the end of the string.

val fill : t -> int -> int -> BatUChar.t -> t

fill s start len c returns the rope in which characters number start to start + len - 1 of s has been replaced by c.

val blit : t -> int -> t -> int -> int -> t

blit src srcoff dst dstoff len returns a copy of dst in which len characters have been copied from rope src, starting at character number srcoff, to rope dst, starting at character number dstoff. It works correctly even if src and dst are the same rope, and the source and destination chunks overlap.

val concat : t -> t list -> t

concat sep sl concatenates the list of ropes sl, inserting the separator rope sep between each.

val replace : str:t -> sub:t -> by:t -> bool * t

replace ~str ~sub ~by returns a tuple constisting of a boolean and a rope where the first occurrence of the rope sub within str has been replaced by the rope by. The boolean is true if a substitution has taken place, false otherwise.

Splitting around
val split : t -> t -> t * t

split s sep splits the rope s between the first occurrence of sep.

val rsplit : t -> t -> t * t

rsplit s sep splits the rope s between the last occurrence of sep.

val nsplit : t -> t -> t list

nsplit s sep splits the rope s into a list of ropes which are separated by sep. nsplit "" _ returns the empty list. If the separator is not found, it returns a list of the rope s. If two occurrences of the separator are consecutive (with nothing in between), the empty rope is added in the sequence. For example, nsplit "a//b/" "/" is "a""""b""".

val compare : t -> t -> int

The comparison function for ropes, with the same specification as Pervasives.compare. Along with the type t, this function compare allows the module Rope to be passed as argument to the functors Set.Make and Map.Make.

val equal : t -> t -> bool

Equality of ropes (based on compare)

val print : (t, 'a) BatIO.printer

Prints a rope to the given out_channel

val read_char : BatIO.input -> BatUChar.t

Read one Unicode char from a UTF-8 encoded input

val read_text : BatIO.input -> int -> t

Read up to n chars from a UTF-8 encoded input

val read_line : BatIO.input -> t

Read a line of UTF-8

val read_all : BatIO.input -> t

Read the whole contents of a UTF-8 encoded input

val write_char : (BatUChar.t, 'a) BatIO.printer

Write one uchar to a UTF-8 encoded output.

val write_text : (t, 'a) BatIO.printer

Write a character text onto a UTF-8 encoded output.

val write_line : (t, 'a) BatIO.printer

Write one line onto a UTF-8 encoded output, followed by a \n.

val lines_of : BatIO.input -> t BatEnum.t

offer the lines of a UTF-8 encoded input as an enumeration

val chars_of : BatIO.input -> BatUChar.t BatEnum.t

offer the characters of an UTF-8 encoded input as an enumeration

val output_text : unit BatIO.output -> t -> unit

Write the text on the given output channel.